Monday, August 19, 2019

Heart of Darkness: Psychoanalytic Criticism Essay -- Psychoanalysis Si

Heart of Darkness: Psychoanalytic Criticism Psychoanalytic criticism originated in the work of Austrian psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud, who pioneered the technique of psychoanalysis. Freud developed a language that described, a model that explained, and a theory that encompassed human psychology. His theories are directly and indirectly concerned with the nature of the unconscious mind. Through his multiple case studies, Freud managed to find convincing evidence that most of our actions are motivated by psychological forces over which we have very limited control (Guerin 127). One of Freud’s most important contributions to the study of the psyche is his theory of repression: the unconscious mind is a repository of repressed desires, feelings, memories, wishes and instinctual drives; many of which have to do with sexuality and violence. These unconscious wishes, according to Freud, can find expression in dreams because dreams distort the unconscious material and make it appear different from itself and more acceptable to co nsciousness. They may also appear in other disguised forms, like in language (sometimes called the Freudian slips), in creative art and in neurotic behavior. One of the unconscious desires Freud believed that all human beings supposedly suppress is the childhood desire to displace the parent of the same sex and to take his or her place in the affections of the parent of the opposite sex. This so-called â€Å"Oedipus Complex,† which all children experience as a rite of passage to adult gender identity, lies at the core of Freud’s sexual theory (Murfin 114-5). A principal element in Freud’s theory is his assignment of the mental processes to three psychic zones: the id, the ego and the superego. The id is the passional, irrational, and unconscious part of the psyche. It is the site of the energy of the mind, energy that Freud characterized as a combination of sexual libido and other instincts, such as aggression, that propel the human organism through life, moving it to grow, develop and eventually to die. That primary process of life is completely irrational, and it cannot distinguish reasonable objects and unreasonable or socially unacceptable ones. Here comes the secondary processes of the mind, lodged in the ego and the superego. The ego, or â€Å"I,† was Freud’s term for the predominantly rational, logical, orderly and conscious part of the psych... ...ut: Librairie Du Liban Publishers SAL, 1994. Guerin, Wilfred L., et al. A Handbook of Critical Approaches to Literature. 4th ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. Hewitt, Douglas. â€Å"Conrad: A Reassessment.† World Literature Criticism. Ed. Polly Vedder. Vol. 4. Detroit: Gale, 1992. 789-92. Hughs, Richard E. The Lively Image: Four Myths in Literature. Cambridge, MA: Winthrop Publishers, 1975. Karl, Frederick R. â€Å"A Reader’s Guide To Joseph Conrad.† World Literature Criticism. Ed. Polly Vedder. Vol. 4. Detroit: Gale, 1992. 785-9. Leavis, F. R. â€Å"From The Great Tradition.† A Practical Reader in Contemporary Literary Theory. London: Harvester Wheatsheaf, 1996. 246-7 Mudrick, Marvin. â€Å"The Originality of Conrad.† World Literature Criticism. Ed. PollyVedder. Vol. 4. Detroit: Gale, 1992. 782-5. Murfin, Ross C. Joseph Conrad Heart of Darkness: A Case Study in Contemporary Criticism. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1989. Saà ¯d, Edward W. Culture and Imperialism. New York: Knopf, 1979. Wright, Elizabeth. â€Å"Psychoanalytic Criticism.† Encyclopedia Of Literature And Criticism. 1991 ed. 765-7.

Sunday, August 18, 2019

Hawthornes Young Goodman Brown - The Puritans and Love Essay -- Young

Young Goodman Brown:   The Puritans and Love  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Hawthorne’s   â€Å"Young Goodman Brown†, exposes the puritan view of love and relationships. In theory, these two visions are diametrically opposed. One exalts love as a physical manifestation between two individuals (although it also claims to represent higher ideals), the other sees it as a spiritual need, one best manifested by attachment to God. In fact, the puritans did not see love as a good thing, but rather as an evil, a grim necessity, that is, they saw physical love (between a man and a woman, or sexuality and all it carries with it) as such. The emotional turmoil affecting Goodman Brown clearly expresses this.   Ã‚  Ã‚  The problem we find in this story, and in puritanism, is that it presents contrasting views of love. Attachment to earthly possessions, to other people in fact, is discouraged, because everything physical leads to temptation and damnation, and ultimately hell, while the road to salvation of the individual wanders through a spiritual discipline, rigour, austerity. A man should not love his wife more than he loves God; in fact, it is recommended that he not derive pleasure from his wife, but rather seek suffering, in order to redeem himself from his earthly condition, his impure state.   Ã‚  Ã‚  This conception of love can be traced back to the first chapters of the Bible, Genesis. Adam and Eve, in the garden of Eden, eat the forbidden fruit and are forever outcast from paradise, forced to suffer. The puritans argued that, if God wishes us to suffer, who are we to go against his wishes. We are sinners, because of the Original Sin, and it was Eve who gav..., it kept the women in a box, it basically prevented uprising by instilling divine fear. Eventually, these ideas evolved, but we still witness many of the after effects of puritanism in today's world.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Again, however, we are faced with a story, this time written after the fact, that sheds a negative light on an ideology. It seems Nathaniel Hawthorne did not want to endorse puritanism, but denounce it, denounce the abuse and contradiction it implied. Once more, we find a work that denigrates an established understanding of love. First, there was opposition to the courtly love tradition, now, we find opposition to the puritan love ideology. So far, we have only been willing to define love by what it wasn't, what we felt was a wrong way of doing things.   Ã‚  Ã‚  If a more definitive answer is to be found, it must be found elsewhere.   

Saturday, August 17, 2019

Healthy Lifestyles Essay

Health lifestyles, in turn, are ways of living that promote good health and longer life expectancy as stated in the assignment. Health lifestyles that promote good health and longer life expectancy would be one where the person has contact with doctors and takes care of themselves completely. While going to the doctors and taking care of oneself is extremely important so is taking care of ourselves outside of the health care system. We have to eat a proper diet and exercise. Most importantly the person has to be able to stick with it and drink water to make sure that they are hydrated and do not get sick from exercising. The person also needs to get adequate amounts of rest. I think that one theory that would support this point of view would be the theory of the â€Å"Looking- Glass Self† (Cockerham, 2012). Cooley ´s concept of the looking glass self-states that each person grows when they interact with other people (Cockerham, 2012). How we look at ourselves comes from how other people perceive us. Actually, how we see ourselves does not come from who we really are, but rather from how we believe others see us. The reason I say that is because most people see themselves how others see them. Or what they think others see them as. In my opinion that is what encourages people to start living and eating the right things. Exercising because of their self-image and what they think that others think about them. The second theory would have to be the theory of health lifestyles. I am unsure if this is an actual theory or not. Cockerham’s theory basically states that individuals have the right to interpret their situation, as well as make choices. This is true, people do make their own decisions, however as he also pointed out that all social action takes place in contexts that imply both constraints and opportunities. By being able to choose to exercise, eat right and to see the doctor it is fully in that persons hand to live a healthy lifestyle. I would say reduce the amount of stress that you encounter especially if you know what causes you stress. Also exercise daily and eat healthy. The person should also get plenty of rest since sleeping too much or too little can worsen anyone’s mood. It is alway s a good idea to pace yourself when you are exercising though. You do not want to end up hurting yourself if you push yourself too hard in the beginning when you are just starting to exercise. The more you exercise the more your body will get used to it and you can exercise more and boost your endurance and stay healthy. I think there are eight (8) components to the model. They  would be 1.) Class circumstances/ age/ gender/ race and or ethnicity collectives living conditions 2.) Socialization Experience 3.) Life Choices, 4.) Life Chances (both 3 and 4 interplay) 5.) Dispositions to Act 6.) Practices, 7.) Alochol use, smoking, diet, exercise, checkups, seatbelts etc. 8.) Health Lifestyles (reproduction). I think that it is very effective even today. It still applies. The demographics and life choices makes sense when trying to get someone to be healthy. They are still as valid and relate to present day situations as it did when the model in the study of health behavior and healthy lifestyle was first done. References Cockerham, W. (n.d.). Medical Sociology (12th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.

Friday, August 16, 2019

Evaluating a protocal budget Essay

â€Å"One of the overall primary challenges organizations conducting clinical research is lack of information about the overall clinical research enterprise† says CITATION KCl96 l 1033 (K Claxton, 1996)Matthew in a recent issue of medical research laws and policy report. Hence developing a quality budget proposal outline gives a better scrutiny and analysis of the funds a clinical trial conduct, in order to acquire better financial outcomes and pass out successful audits, there is needed to be more vigilant and careful in the financial management. â€Å"Establishing guidelines to streamline and aid the management of a clinical trial program will make managing less challenging† as CITATION kel p 1999 y l 1033 (Willenberg, p. 1999). This is being emphasized in order to meet the allocated budget for a given organization. Many hospitals and academic centers lack the trained personnel for them to review the study proposals and funds which consequently lead to incorre ct billing for research. CITATION MBa04 l 1033 (M Barnes, 2004) â€Å"In order to evaluate the protocol requirement, you need to determine exactly what is going to be done as part of the protocol. Once that is completed, you should be able to determine what resources the site will need in order to implement the protocol† Preparation for a budget clinical trial is done maybe when you want to obtain funds from a granter for your research or you have been paid to conduct a certain protocol by a pharmaceutical such a case you develop a budget for your research, putting into considerations things like: laboratory tests, hospital admissions, patient visits, surgical procedures and fees for the above services. These are considered as the resource requirements for you to develop a comprehensive budget. Below is a template example for a budget proposal outline I developed for a certain request for application. (RFA) Below is our application budgetCITATION kel p 2001 y l 1033 (Willenberg, p. 2001) RFA Title: Host- directed TB Therapy new approaches (UH2/UH3) RFA Number: RFA-A1-14-058 Purpose of the RFA: The main purpose for filling this request of application is to curb the adverse effects of TB brought about by Negligence and lack of follow up to these victims. This research is centered to direct TB therapies to the host individuals where each victim is screened and followed up for their healing process ensuring they take the right medication and avoid chances of infecting others. Reason for selecting this RFA – I chose this particular RFA following the upcoming of new technologies and new machines especially the gene expert machine, which processes sputum, analysis it and determines the multidrug resistance individuals, enabling their follow up. Budget (Time) Period: This clinical trial is programmed to take 2 years. Budget Categories Budget Category Description Cost $ Subtotal $ Personnel Principal investigator Graduate research assistant (lab scientist) Undergraduate research assistant (Nurse) Data staff These relates to costs incurred by the staff involved in the research process. Different types of personnel are paid according to their experience and expertise. Rates of these personnel are charged either according to rate per study visit, hourly rate or full time. The budget also included costs for new recruitment of personnel and training. CITATION MBa04 l 1033 (M Barnes, 2004)78,200 24,000 12,000 8,000 122,200 Services Screening Administrative work Costs incurred in offering services to the subject individual through evaluation, screening and costs for transport of specimen, batching and storage. 1100 270 1370 Facilities Laboratory Clinical These are the cost needed to come up with facilities where the subject individuals are taken their specimen in this case sputum for analysis and how often they visit the clinics for checkup. These facilities are needed to offer these services. 30,000 20,000 50,000 Data capturing -report forms -questionnaires -Computers -printers Collected on case report forms and questionnaires thus need to be included in the budget. Costs also incurred in obtaining and developing these data. Computers, photocopiers and printers also included in the budget. Travel Domestic trips Domestic trips Airfare This accounts for cost of all the trips made for training and meetings associated with the clinical trial, visiting other sites, scientific presentations and going to the research areas. 6400 2200 4000 12600 Equipment and suppliers -gene expert machine Cost incurred for purchasing all the related equipment needed and paying the suppliers who bring the equipment and machines to do the case study (gene expert machine for sputum processing and analysis.) CITATION KCl96 l 1033 (K Claxton, 1996)20,000 20,000 Total Expenses 206,170 Indirect Costs The research incurred extra expenses on utilities (phone and internet), cleaning and rent at an overhead rate of 8%. CITATION Fra l 1033 (Stromberg)400 400 TOTAL REQUEST 206,570 References K Claxton, J. P. (1996). Health Economics.M Barnes, J. K. (2004). Journal of health law.Ognibene, G. a. (n.d.). Evaluating a protocal budget.Stromberg, F. (n.d.). Instruments for clinical health care research. 2004. W.Staman, m. (n.d.). medical research laws and policy report. Willenberg, k. M. (n.d.). managing clinical trials-frustrations. Health economics†, (1996) – Wiley Online Library by K Claxton, J Posnnett.Look AHEAD research Group-controlled clinical trials†, (2003†- Elsevier. Instruments for clinical health-care research† by M Frank-Stromberg, SJ Olsen (2004) Practical clinical trials: increasing the value of clinical research for decision making in clinical and health policy† by SR Tunis, DB Stryer, CM Clancy-jama (2003) Source document

Thursday, August 15, 2019

Psychology Prediction Essay

According to one of my favorite philosophers, Yogi Berra, Its hard to predict, especially the future†. He’s right but it doesn’t stop many people from trying. In fact predicting the future is essential to many aspects of our lives – in business, and beyond. Many professionals have the need to accurately predict outcomes of the future to be successful in their jobs. And many have occupations where predicting the future actually is their job, one way or another. As an analyst at Gartner, I am of course a good example of this. Some of this is common sense. Some is controversial. Some goes completely against what most think and against what people are taught even at organizations who train people to do predictive type jobs. But it works for me. Here are my ten guiding principles for accurate prediction: 1.Care about being right. This sounds obvious but circumstances and other requirements often get in the way. Professionals whose job involves making predictions face pressures to have an opinion, no matter what, and to generate visibility. This can lead to quickly formed opinions and overstating and over hyping things. While these things may in fact need to be part of a strategy, they do not have to be the primary goal. Tempering such behavior by placing the goal of being right at a higher priority is one of the real keys to accurate prediction. You can’t be afraid to be wrong, but you can’t place being right at lower priority and expect to be good at predicting. 2.Be an â€Å"innumerate†. Be extremely skeptical of any numbers. Many believe that numbers don’t lie. They don’t of course, but people do. And they state the numbers that they want to state to make their case. And they get things confused. Numbers are more useful in looking back at history than in predicting (looking back at history is helpful and numbers can help). Be especially wary of survey data. Often the questions are poorly formed and the respondents not necessarily knowledgeable. There is no substitute for talking directly to people to make sure that you understand context and that they understand the question. And follow-up is possible. 3.Ask yourself â€Å"Why are they telling me this?† Understand the motivations of sources of information. Everyone you meet has some type of agenda. Sometimes it is truly to educate you, usually not. It is critical to understand what the source of information wants you to think to put the information into context. 4.Ask yourself â€Å"What would I do†? Put yourself in the shoes of the CEO or key decision maker of the entity if possible. This is a key tool to predicting how companies and organizations will behave. If the prediction is about that company, this is the major key. If it is more general, putting yourself in the shoes of multiples and playing out scenarios is helpful. 5.Recognize that most of the time, you will know less than your sources. The world is full of specialists. Depending on circumstance, you may know as much as your sources but there is almost always someone who is more of an expert than you. So you need to develop strategies for assessing the credibility and honesty of a source. A useful tactic is to lead a discussion towards an area in which you do know a lot and test the source’s honesty and credibility. This can help determine what weight to give the source 6.Don’t jump to conclusions. Whenever possible take your time. When pushed for an opinion, it is best to say â€Å"if I had to have an opinion I would lean towards x†, but not highlight these types of things as â€Å"predictions†. 7.Find â€Å"bubbles†, conventional thinking and poke at assumptions. Try to understand why most people have a certain belief and figure out what assumptions they have. Look for misunderstandings, confusion, motivations and social trends. 8.Get information you’re not supposed to have. Basic networking is essential to knowing your subject and to getting information you’re not supposed to have (Obviously those subject to â€Å"insider trading† types of issues need to tread carefully here). Listen for slip ups. Put the pieces together. Fill in the holes. Speculate. 9.â€Å"You’re only paranoid if you’re wrong†. Explore conspiracy theories. While they usually won’t be the prediction, the exercise of examining possible conspiracy theories often is fruitful. Remember At the very least there is bound to be some aspect of the theory that has some truth to it and may point the way towards a good prediction. However, it is far more likely that stupidity or laziness, rather than conspiracy, is the cause. 10.Constantly test, validate and refine. Every chance you get to talk to a person whose opinion you respect, test new theories. Every chance you talk to a source of information, test your theories and gauge their reactions. Be open to tweaks.

Wednesday, August 14, 2019

2 Random Speeches Bob Marley and Beauty (Ideas)

Speech September 27, 2012 Bob Marley the Rastafarian I. Nesta Robert Bob Marley was born February of 1945. Bob Marley was born in Jamaica. You might know him as a singer, song writer, a rhythm guitarist, and lead singer of the Wailer’s. He stayed with the group through most of his life. Bob is the go to guy for spreading Jamaican music and the Rastafarian movement. Some of his most popular songs are: I Shot the Sheriff, No Women No Cry and Jamming to name a few, I listen to some of his music, which for me is inspirational. Gives me something to think about, what was going on in his mind mentally and the thoughts about war, peace and love.II. One of my favorite quotes from Bob is â€Å"I don’t have prejudice against white people because then I would have prejudice against myself. My father is white my mother is black. I’m not on the black men side or the white men, I’m God’s side. Bob Marley was raised Catholic, but became a devoted Rastafarian and started growing dreads, which is very important to them, it’s like the anatine tuning meaning you’re into the universe. Rastas are also vegetarian. Bob was a jiglo with eleven kids, some you might know like Damien Marley and Ziggy Marley. III.Rastafarians also were avid pot heads which is a Rastafarian belief were ganja or that kush is a holy sacrament. The difference between Rastas and non Rastas are that they smoke for religious and medicinal purposes. Another quote I like is â€Å"why do government people want the herb to be illegal, why something that makes people so happy, so relax so illegal? Some people smoke weed because you rebel makes you question what is and what isn’t. Exercise your mind frees your mind in a society that tries to involve it’s self in everyday life telling you what is right and wrong! † IV.In July 1977 Bob found out that out that he had cancer all throughout his body, he even had spots his brain the size of quarters that the doctor didn’t understand how he last so long without any medication or medicine assistance. He was buried near his birth place; his last words were to his son â€Å"mommy can’t buy life†! I know that for me inner beauty supposed to shine through to reveal your outer beauty; and it’s taken me awhile for me to truly understand why men and women choose physical beauty over inner beauty. Physical beauty and inner beauty can be similar and dissimilar.Inner beauty are the actions we take, whether it’s giving up a smile to a stranger, eating the right foods, wearing clothes that shows our physique, or using the right hair tools: such as curling irons, flat iron, and gel. These are things we do to take care of ourselves, and they add up to make us the unique person that we and you are! Physical and inner beauty can be similar or dissimilar: they both attract people. People in general are attracted to both physical and inner beauty. I may be drawn to M orris Chestnut’s appearance; while my big sister will love his personality. Physical and inner beauty are both equally important though.Let’s take for example: Beyonce, who many young girls and women admire for her unique sense of style (myself included). I’ve never met her in person, but it seems to me that she has this balance of inner and outer beauty. As the face of L'Oreal, a brand known for their quality cosmetics: hair and nail colors; we have seen Beyonce’s alter ego Sasha Fierce! She’s a bad Bitch! She also appears to be very comfortable in her own skin either portraying Etta James in Cadillac Records or Deena Jones in Dream Girls. When I watch Beyonce being interviewed, she seems very genuine, candid, and confident when sharing bits and pieces about her life.I sense that she pay close attention to details: hair, make-up, perfume and the clothes she wears. Finding balance between inner and outer beauty doesn’t just happen overnight. It’ll take some inner soul searching and discovering of our own uniqueness: hat beauty could be in the form of how we dress or the way we shine! Most importantly it’s the way we feel about ourselves, and having the awareness that beauty consists of both the inner and outer, we are the first step to becoming more authentic and the real person that we were meant to be, Beautiful!

Modern American Culture Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 4000 words

Modern American Culture - Essay Example According to the studies of Cunningham (2005, Pg 110) as the service form becomes an inner part of culture, so culture and society becomes obtainable for use in the awareness of co-modification as special cultural substances, as a foundation of commercial influences, and as representational legitimation for the complete structure. Culture and the service form turn out to be dialectically entwined. Americans live in an over-commodified world, with requirements that are created in the well being of the marketplace and that can be met only in the course of the advertisement or marketing. Calthorpe (1994, Pg 3-4) explains the New Modernism emerged in America as a potential remedy for decades of inadequately planned sub urbanization. The period in which this sub urbanization actually began raises debate. Many researchers cite the latter half of the nineteenth century as the advent of suburbia, when development in major metropolitan areas began to move into circles outside the city limits. Some researchers, on the other hand, claims that although the subordinate urbanization of the United States began in the 1920s, it was not until the postwar era that the process gave way the collusion of public policy and private practice'. And up till now Fjellman (1992, ... reveals that, as the subsequent 50 years would illustrate, the promises of the American borders brought their individual distribution of special troubles. Long travels, traffic squeeze, effluence, not careful city planning, disparaging ignorance for built heritage, environmental unawareness, lack of sufficient leisure space, and mind-numbing community and confidential architecture all donated to the all-purpose depression and sarcasm of uptown life in the delayed twentieth century. In numerous ways, postwar suburbanites fundamentally switched one set of troubles for another. (Kunstler, Pg 36) Whereas they may have runaway the rising 'black fright' of the internal city, these perpetrators in the course, shaped for their grandchildren a heritage of predictability, boredom, civilizing homogeneity, and domestic/personal dysfunctionality. Disney, City Of Celebration And Modern American Culture Katz (1994, Pg 13-14) explains what does culture have to do with Walt Disney World The 'Disney City Of Celebration's environment of the New Modernism faces yet again as one of the mainly widespread criticisms of neo traditional values. Criticism that New Modernist societies look 'false' or seem too 'intentionally wistful' usually outside, though many of these same opponents cannot help but esteem the wealthy colors, pleasant views, and sparkling streets such towns present. Places like Disneyland's Main Street, USA motivates many of the same manners one understands in a New Modernist society. 'Americans love Disney City since the daily places where they survive and go about their business are so miserable that Disney City seems superb in contrast'. Without a hesitation, the New Modernism and Disney's 'architecture of reassurance' contribute to a number of general objectives: Both